Theory (evolving group Consensus) + Practice = PRAXIS
Defined from a Communist perspective
The source of each item is the Encyclopedia of Marxism, unless a different source is given.
The source of the resources listed here is the National Service-Learning Clearinghouse
The short list gives us a glimpse of the vast resources and studies behind organized service-learning programs in schools, universities and communities across America. Notice the highlighted words and phrases, which alert us to the new transformational ways of thinking, communicating, serving and learning. The emphasis is obviously not on objective facts and logical thinking! Those trusty old tools for learning would hinder today's revolutionary change -- and the planned purge of Biblical Truth and moral values.
See also Mind Change and Collective Service andMandatory Training in Orwellian Thinking
E. Giles. (1991). "Dewey's Theory
of Experience: Implications for
Service Learning." Journal of Cooperative
Education, 27(2), 87-90.
Abstract: Relates John Dewey's concepts about education and experience to service-learning. Giles suggests a dialectical interaction between service and learning, which had implications for ensuring quality in service-learning programs and for defining service- learning as a philosophy rather than as a type of program.
Jr., & Eyler, J. (1994). "Theoretical roots of service
learning in John Dewey: Toward a theory of service learning."
Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning,
Abstract: As interest service-learning research multiples, there is a concomitant need for a theoretical base for service learning. In this article the authors review aspects of John Dewey's educational and social philosophy that they identify as relevant to the development of a theory of service learning including learning form experience, reflective activity, citizenship, community, and democracy.
Andrew & Billig, Shelley H. (2002).
Service-Learning: The Essence of
the Pedagogy. Greenwich, CO: Information
Abstract: The chapters of this book focus on a broad range of topics that address a variety of research issues on service-learning in K-12 education, teacher education, and higher education. This book contains essays in three categories: theoretical issues regarding service-learning, the impacts of service-learning, and methodological approaches to studying service-learning. The chapters include: "Community Service and Service-Learning in America: The State of the Art"; "Is Service-Learning Really Better Than Community Service? A Study of High School Service Program Outcomes"; "Civil Society, Social Trust, and the Implementation of Service-Learning"; "An Application of Developmental-Contextualism to Service-Learning"; "Using Program Theory to Build and Evaluate Service-Learning Programs"; "Theories Guiding Outcomes for Action Research for Service-Learning"; "Beyond Surveys: Using the Problem Solving Interview to Assess the Impact of Service-Learning on Understanding and Critical Thinking"; "Methodological Challenges and Potential Solutions for the Incorporation of Sound Community-Based Research into Service-Learning"; "Service-Learning as Qualitative Research: Creating Curriculum from Inquiry"; "Impact of Service-Learning on Civic Attitudes and Behaviors of Middle and High School Youth: Findings from Three National Evaluations"...and "Research Agenda for K-12 Service-Learning: A Proposal to the Field.”
D., & Harris, S. (1996). "Service
learning practice: Developing a
theoretical framework." Michigan
Journal of Community Service Learning.
Abstract: Service Learning has dramatically increased its impact on the American educational scene during the past few years, and new practitioners are quickly adopting the methods of integrating traditional classroom based instruction and community service. ... For two decades, we have been drawing largely on Dewey, Kolb and Freire for theoretical support for our work. This paper suggests additional theoretical perspectives drawn largely from cognitive psychology and
K.C. (2000). "John Dewey and the
rebuilding of urban community: Engaging
undergraduates as neighborhood organizers."
Michigan Journal of Community Service
Learning, 7, 97-108.
Abstract: John Dewey's related concerns to revitalize education and to rebuild community and democracy at the local level have powerfully appealed to service-learning advocates. Yet only rarely have students been engaged directly as neighborhood organizers, a role that, from Dewey's perspective, would appear to have great educational and social promise. After exploring this anomaly, this paper employs Dewey's understanding of democracy to analyze one program which has succeeded in making widespread use of college students as front-line organizers. The complementarity between what students do in their neighborhood target sites and what happens within the classroom generates the extraordinary potential of this service-learning activity.
T. (1999). "Service-learning in
two keys: Paulo
pedagogy in relation to John Dewey's
pragmatism." Michigan Journal of
Community Service Learning, 6, 5-29.
Abstract: The author, from Kansas State University, compares the educational and philosophical theories of John Dewey and Paulo Freire, articulating how each deals with two key relationships: action to reflection, and individual to society. While Dewey and Freire largely overlap in their theories of experiential learning, they depart on the larger ideological purposes of education, with Freire more inviting of critical reflection on race, class, and power. After a discussion of each theorist, the author illustrates the implications of Deweyan and Freirean philosophical frameworks for service-learning pedagogy, using two college writing courses as examples.
G. (1995). "Knowledge, foundations,
and discourse: Philisophical support
for service learning." Michigan
Journal of Community Service Learning,
Abstract: For some time now advocates of service-learning in higher education have been arguing for a
A. (1997). The Evolution of Character
Education: From Hellfire and Brimstone
to Constructivism. Unpublished paper,
University of Texas.
Abstract: "As America becomes increasingly pluralistic, the task of deciding whose values to teach, and how to best teach them, is most treacherous. A starting place for this task may be an examination of the three domains of character education: moral, political, and intellectual."
J. (1990). "Beyond curricula: Helping
students construct knowledge
through teaching and research."
Abstract: "Examines different kinds of activities that can provide students with opportunities for integrating community service and curricular concerns... and identifies the structural contradictions that are revealed through efforts to promote service-learning activities within colleges and universities..."