Trapped in the Matrix
by Berit Kjos, May 2003
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Matrix 1: Background information for Matrix Reloaded
"The world has been taken over by the Matrix, and is now being run by an Artificial Intelligence [AI].... Humans are living in a computer-generated dream world... never realizing that they are slaves of an evil system.... A few rebel humans discover the horror of the Matrix. They believe that computer programmer Thomas Anderson (Keanu Reeves), who by night is a computer hacker nicknamed Neo, is 'the One,' who according to prophesy, will save the world from cyber-slavery."1
"The Matrix is a shamanic journey in dramatized form.... [Humans] were put into a deep sleep, and a collective dream was engendered to keep them tractable and docile, like babies in their cribs, while their vital life force was sucked from them. Humans are bred and raised directly into these incubators, and fed intravenously with the liquefied remains of the dead. This is pure occultism....
"Within the Matrix, however, there exist certain possibilities for escape, and this is where Morpheus and his crew come in. They are the 'awakened' ones... who have made it out of the computer-simulated fantasy grid and liberated their bodies from the energy farms in 'the real world' ... [They are] able to enter the Matrix--the dream world -- at will, and function therein with superhuman potential.... Any knowledge... can simply be downloaded, on the spot, directly into their consciousness by computer."2
Confused by the Matrix? I was. I still don't fully understand its many-layered messages. And since the Matrix opens the door to a wide variety of personal perceptions and interpretations, you may not agree with my conclusions. But the movie's allure among Christians demands a response, and the concerns shared by troubled parents call for answers. Here are some of their comments:Susan K.
"I have been amazed--appalled, really--at the number of articles quoting Christian ministers as saying things like, 'This movie is better than any sermon I could give!'"
"...they are all just dying to see that movie." Angela Goodrick
"When the first movie came out several years ago I was encouraged to find several overt biblical references in the storyline, including a reference to the story's main character, NEO as 'my own personal Jesus Christ'. Unfortunately... I also found repeated references to Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism. It was enough to convince me that what I was watching was most likely a covert advertisement for some new, and as yet, unannounced BLENDED world religion.... An entire generation of kids is being caught up in this craze.... Might be worth a closer look."John Rice
"Eastern philosophies share much in common with Gnosticism, but the Gnostic worldview is a much more accurate description of the Matrix series.... And like the Gnosticism of the early church, it seems to easily deceive undiscerning Christians into equating its themes with biblical Christianity. Its creators mix and match different strands of thought, but they and their (knowledgeable) fans know its main thrust is Gnostic."Phillip Worts [See chart on gnosticism at the end]
We may never answer all the concerns raised by Matrix 1 and Matrix Reloaded, but one thing is certain: The three-part series does more than entertain.
Nineteen-year-old Josh Cooke couldn't get enough of Matrix 1. He decorated his bedroom with a poster of Neo, the savior-hero of this popular myth. He had a long black trench coat that helped him identify with his favorite idol. And, according to an article titled, "Matrix films blamed for series of murders by obsessed fans," he bought a gun like the one Neo used. Author Duncan Campbell tells what happened next:
"In February, he shot his father and mother in the basement of their home and then called the police. His lawyers say he believed that he was living inside the Matrix.... 'He's just obsessed with it.'...
"The Matrix seems to have spawned other imitators....In San Francisco in 2000, Vadim Mieseges, 27, killed his landlady.... The police who interviewed him said he had made 'reference to being sucked into the Matrix'.
"The young man accused of taking part in last year's sniper attacks in the Washington area has also cited the film. 'Free yourself of the Matrix,' wrote Lee Boyd Malvo, 18, one of the two defendants, in his jail cell." 3
Chris, a Canadian youth leader, painted a far more positive picture of the movie's tension between reality and fantasy:
"I first got onto [the Matrix] when our apologetics teacher at Bible school sent people to the theatre to watch it and write a review of it....It has some strong Christian parallels for sure. I would not go so far as to say it is a 'Christian' movie, but it is certainly something we can use to relate the good news of Christ....
"The goal of new age is to enter a state of nothingness in order to connect to the Divine consciousness... Matrix, on the other hand, is not about entering into a nothingness but finding true reality."
Chris is wrong about the New Age. Though built on the foundation of Eastern religions and earth-centered spirituality, it downplayed Nirvana's "nothingness" and established a multi-faceted belief system far more flexible and appealing to Western hedonism. But Neo's search for wisdom to save the rebels of Zion -- and to "awaken" the human slaves of the Matrix -- could never lead to "true reality." Instead, the ingenious plot twists truth into an enticing lie that mimics the New Age and matches Gnosticism.
Gnosticism (from gnosis, the Greek word for knowledge) is an "umbrella word" for all sorts of occult philosophies. The early Gnostics sought salvation and supernatural power through esoteric knowledge -- a secret gnosis, not just ordinary knowledge. They saw the rest of the world held captive to evil, while they were the enlightened remnant who found spiritual freedom and transcendence in secret wisdom.
Hidden knowledge is key to the Matrix as well. Ignorance and illusion has, like a blanket, covered the minds of the people and kept them in bondage. Only the secrets revealed first to Morpheus, Trinity and other rebels, then to the reluctant Neo, can free them from the evil machines and the programs that rule them. Modeling mind over matter, it shows that spiritual insights alter physical realities. Or so it seems.
The main source of secret wisdom is an elderly female oracle. As in ancient Greek myths, where the oracle functioned as a spiritual medium for the gods, her answers are ambiguous. But Morpheus had no doubts about her authenticity. "She can help you find the path," he told Neo in Matrix 1. Moments later, Neo stood in her reception room, where some of her young students were practicing their magic. A blue-eyed boy with shaved head and a Buddhist-like robe told him how to bend spoons with his mind. Neo succeeded on his first try.
"Everything the oracle has told me has come true," said Trinity.
In Matrix 2, a wise old Keymaker has also found a source of universal knowledge. Toward the end of the movie, someone asks him, "How do you know all this?"
"I know because I know," he answers. "It is my purpose."
That's all. No explanation needed. And in the context of the movie, it makes some sense. A digital brain is, in effect, programming everything within the Matrix according to the will and purpose of its masters.
But if you look beyond the material facade and see the movie as an allegory with deeper meanings (which most fans do), you begin to unwrap more subtle suggestions. Many have done just that -- and found all kinds of spiritual implications. The key is perception. Just as lifelike computer-generated pornography stirs lust as readily as actual porn photographs, so the perceived messages plant impressions in the brain as effectively -- or more so -- than the dry facts.
The Keymaker's comment is significant, for it touches on Gnostic fatalism.[See Gnostic symbol] And since his words fits the movie's context, the message is heard again and again:
"We do only what we're meant to do."
"Causality, action, reaction, cause and effect.... Choice is an illusion...."
"Whatever happens happens for a reason."
"All that matters is feeling. Beneath our poised appearance, we are completely out of control.... Causality: we are forever slaves to it."
The last of the above quotes points to another Gnostic belief that fits both the Matrix and today's culture. Fantasy and imagined experiences become more important than reality. The human slaves in the Matrix are pacified through a virtual reality of feel-good experiences that hide their wretched condition. (As a traitorous rebel acknowledged, "Ignorance is bliss!") Similarly, the emotional thrills of just watching the movie may hide some of the consequences of mental immersion into its myths and immorality.
In his article, "Gnosticism Reborn: The Matrix as Shamanic Journey," Jake Horsley writes,
The Matrix is serving the oldest and most respectable, most revered, cause of art: that of enlightening the populace, by means both profound and ridiculous, to the Truth. Perhaps one in a thousand of those who see the movie will recognize or even notice its Gnostic tenets; but regardless of this, everyone who sees the film has effectively been exposed to them.... In the case of The Matrix, the work is simply too inspired and effective (and affecting) to be anything but a work of revelation...."
These roots reach back to the cradle of civilization. The Wordsworth Dictionary of the Occult tells us that "Gnosticism...first emerged in the Babylonian lowlands...." It involves "the spontaneous expression of religious feeling. It sustains and opposes official religion at one and the same time, just as reality is driven hither and thither by poetry or dreams."5
Sounds confusing, doesn't it? Gnosticism, like the Matrix, defies logic and simple explanations. But it appeals to human feelings, therefore, people accept it even if they can't define it. That's what happened back in the 1st century. Blending Christian words with occult teaching, the early Gnostics deceived many Christians.
To counter Gnostic distortions of the gospel, the apostle Paul wrote the familiar letter to the Colossian church. In it, he warned his precious friends in Christ,
"Beware lest anyone cheat you through philosophy and empty deceit, according to the tradition of men, according to the basic principles of the world, and not according to Christ. For in Him dwells all the fullness of the Godhead bodily; and you are complete in Him, who is the head of all principality and power." Colossians 2:8-10
Today, this unholy mix is once again seeping into churches -- largely through popular entertainment.
Since "religious feeling" matters far more than facts, the movie is spotted with hints and allusions to various beliefs. Be they Buddhist, Hindu, New Age or "Christian", most viewers can find familiar reference points. These lower their resistance and help make even disturbing scenes palatable.
As Christian parents, we need to understandthe mind-changing suggestions that plant indelible images in unguarded minds. Remember, the feelings stirred by popular entertainment build memories that often seem more real than reality itself. If we dismiss these powerful mental stimuli, we can't help our children and friends resist these seductions:
1. Blood, brutality, violence and destruction. An abundance of studies show that visual or imagined violence can lead to actual violence. People cannot fill their minds with wanton brutality without mental and moral consequences. One of those consequences is an insatiable lust for an ever-growing intensity of thrills. As the virtual violence of the past becomes boring, only a higher level of shock and brutality can satisfy the craving.
The steps toward moral depravity include desensitization to the nature of evil and justification of sin. Both play a part in the mental process of a Matrix fan who immerses himself in the Gnostic myth and identifies with immoral heroes. [See The Power of Suggestion]
"Everyone deals falsely. ... Were they ashamed when they had committed abomination? No! They were not at all ashamed; nor did they know how to blush."Jeremiah 6:13-15
2. Occult empowerment. While Bible-based names add an illusion of truth to the Matrix myth, the supernatural powers and beliefs of the main character is anything but Christian. Neo is a Kung Fu expert with power to zoom through the air like Superman. His death (back in Matrix 1) at the hand of an enemy agent with supernatural power took place in the dream world of the Matrix. And, according to the convoluted context of the movie (Matrix 1), he also died back in Zion, the real world. There -- like the prince who kissed Sleeping Beauty -- Trinity kissed the mouth of his dead body, and he awakened from death -- endowed with the superpowers demonstrated in Matrix 2.
The old, familiar Power Rangers may seem innocuous by comparison, but they illustrate a genuine problem with virtual violence and high-speed martial arts. Children around the world would watch their favorite television show, then imitate their heroes by kicking sofas, siblings, dogs and moms. In other words, what their minds had imagined, their bodies demonstrated in the "real world."
The same principle applies to Neo's attempts (in Matrix 2)to save the wounded Trinity whose death had been foretold. But Neo saves her and extracts the bullet. She seems to be dying in spite of his efforts, so the grieving Neo reaches into her chest to massage her heart.
Since this, too, takes place in the dream world of programmed illusions, Neo's hand and Trinity's body are shown as shadowy, translucent images. (The operation reminded me of the blood-less psychic surgeries performed by occultist or shamans.) Trinity revives, and we see the physical change in the real world as well as in the Matrix. In other words, what Neo does in the dream world becomes effective in the real world. Shifting back and forth between the two worlds, the screen documents the absolute correspondence between them.
But, you might argue, such correspondence fits the story. Yes, but viewers are also familiarized with a most important occult principle. Watching that scene, I remembered the words of Peter, the former occultist who explained the timeless nature of today's popular occultism. The slogan, "As above, so below," assures occultists today -- as it did in secret societies centuries ago -- that the magical feats they imagine in their minds will be actualized in the physical world.
"...the mystery of lawlessness is already at work... The coming of the lawless one is according to the working of Satan, with all power, signs, and lying wonders, and with all unrighteous deception among those who perish, because they did not receive the love of the truth, that they might be saved. And for this reason God will send them strong delusion, that they should believe the lie...."2 Thessalonians 2:7-11
3. Ritual sex. Thirty minutes into Matrix Reloaded, the human rebels gather in their cavernous underground home for a pep talk from Morpheus, their spiritual leader. Facing overwhelming odds, they are told to pray and hope. Morpheus (some see him as a modern "John the Baptist") ends his message with a rousing challenge to remember their home and identity: "This is Zion and we are not afraid!"
The crowd responds with an orgy of drumming, jumping, colliding bodies and "freak" or "dirty dancing." This sensual "rave" ritual reminded me of Israel's shameless celebration of the golden calf in the Sinai wilderness. God had called Moses away for 40 days to receive the Ten Commandments and, in his absence, the people chose to trust an idol rather than the almighty God who had freed them from slavery.
Pre-warned, I closed my eyes during most of this scene. When I finally looked up, I glimpsed the sweating, swaying, partly unclothed bodies of the mob and, retreating into the distance, the bodies of Neo and Trinity encapsulated in what looked like an oval altar.Such sexual orgies have been practiced in most of the major pagan civilizations in the past. Now, in our postmodern, post-Christian era, the custom is being revived [See A Twist of Faith, chapter 7] -- fueled, in part, by today's revival of the more sensual forms of Gnosticism. Look at one of its many sects, the Barbelo-Gnostics, who were identified with Sophia (Greek word for wisdom). In her article, "The Uncomplicated Gnostic," Renee Ramsey writes:
"Pleasure and sensuality were accepted as normal and natural. Their practices included what might be termed (today) as Tantric and as Magicka Sexualis."6
It sounds like a Biblical message about ancient Babylon, doesn't it? Listen to His warning addressed to that notorious birthplace of Gnosticism:
7 They shall come upon you... because of the multitude of your sorceries.... For you have trusted in your wickedness; you have said, ‘No one sees me.’ Your wisdom and your knowledge have warped you.... Let now the astrologers, the stargazers, and the monthly prognosticators stand up and save you from what shall come upon you." Isaiah 47:3-13
"Your shame will be seen.... you who are given to pleasures.
The Biblical description of Mystery Babylon shows how the evils of the ancient Babylonian civilization would be multiplied in end times. Notice "the mother of harlots" riding on the beast who will return from some kind of death to rule the world as the Antichrist:
"The woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet... having in her hand a golden cup full of abominations and the filthiness of her fornication. And on her forehead a name was written: MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, the MOTHER OF HARLOTS and of the abominations of the earth. I saw the woman, drunk with the blood of the saints....
"I will tell you the mystery of the woman and of the beast that carries her, which has the seven heads and the ten horns. The beast that you saw was, and is not, and will ascend out of the bottomless pit and go to perdition. And those who dwell on the earth will marvel, whose names are not written in the Book of Life from the foundation of the world, when they see the beast that was, and is not, and yet is."
4. Gnostic mysticism and Counterfeit Christianity. Do you wonder why Christians would see the Matrix -- with its immoral images and occult suggestions-- as Messianic or Christian?
The main reason is simple. We are easily deceived and we don't know God's Word well enough to discern subtle distortions. Most of the other points have been mentioned:
In Matrix 1, Neo died and was resurrected. "Just like Christ," say his fans. But Neo's fascination with Gnostic, New Age and Buddhist spiritual forces puts him in the opposite camp. As you saw earlier, even the dreaded antichrist will return to life after a fatal wound. In contrast, Jesus Christ became our Savior because He, our holy and perfect Lord and King, took the punishment for our sins. To equate His death on the cross with Neo's death makes a mockery of God's plan for our salvation.
Yet, Neo is "the One",
Morpheus has been called "a father figure" or modern "John the Baptist." "Morpheus, you are more the leader to us, you're a father," said a crew member on the hover craft, Nebuchadnezzar.
Words such as Zion, Trinity, Nebuchadnezzar and prayer suggest Biblical connections. We forget that, not long ago, the main occult systems of the Western world (alchemy, Rosicrucianism, Freemasonry and the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn) all used Biblical words in their myths and philosophies. Like the serpent in the garden, they just twisted them into lies that denied God's truth.
"All religious knowledge develops... from an ancient primitive origin,"5 wrote Andre Nataf in his Dictionary of the 0ccult. He was almost right. All but Biblical Christianity can be adapted and synthesized according to the whims of man and the "schemes of the devil".
In the Matrix, people have found karmic Hinduism and Tantric Buddhism (includes ritual sex) and many other spiritual expressions in addition to the mystical distortion of Christianity. A brief scene showing an altar adorned with candles, flowers, a traditional painting of Mary and various idols (including a seated Buddha) honored this diversity.
But they all come together in Gnosticism. Called a "syncretistic whirlpool," it draws and distorts all beliefs that can be adapted to its flexible guidelines and its false visions of freedom and unity. Andre Nataf continues,
Notice how the words of the Lord's Prayer (Matthew 6:10) are used to teach the occult principle, "As above, so below." No wonder it fits into the occult teachings of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, which we exposed in the article on Popular Occultism. "Gnosticism is the philosophical foundation of hermetism," says Mr. Nataf. "It is instituted in the quest for the secret of the universe...."5
"As a sort of mystical existentialism, Gnosticism is the mother of freedom. The Gnostic wants to proclaim himself the ally of creative divinity. ...When men find themselves again, evil will be transcended on earth as well as in heaven."5
Gnosticism has a plan of salvation, but its savior is not our Lord Jesus Christ. It has its own cosmic drama, but this drama twists God's truths as shrewdly as did Satan's message to Eve in the garden. It has its own set of "historical" myths, but these myths explain humanity's journey toward saving knowledge, not toward saving faith.
From the beginning, Gnosticism has taught dualism (two opposing principles - good/evil, dark/light. See the yin-yang). More recently, some of its many variations have also embraced a form of monism (one God). But its unique monism is not simply a counterfeit of the Biblical God. Instead, its spiritual government looks more likeTolkien's pantheon of co-creating, co-ruling gods which are governed by a higher, more distant and less personal god.
One of its goals is restoration of "unity" and separation from "evil." Historically, its teaching focused on separation between an evil body and a potentially good soul and spirit. But that meant renunciation of lustful activities -- a discipline with little appeal in a world driven by feel-good experiences. Eventually, most Gnostics traded asceticism for indulgence. Synthesizing some of the teachings of Tantric Buddhism, it embraced all kinds of sexual experiences. Thus carnal as well as spiritual knowledge found a place in the Gnostic quest for higher wisdom, magical prowess, secret knowledge and spiritual enlightenment.
This quest may be the main answer to the Matrix puzzle. Those who "get it" become part of an elite group of initiates into the secret knowledge that has intrigued seekers since the beginning of time. "'You will not surely die,' the serpent assured Eve,
"For God knows that in the day you eat of it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil.' So when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree desirable to make one wise, she took of its fruit and ate."
The serpent promised life, but his lie led to spiritual death. So do all the counterfeit gospels and tempting illusions that tantalize today's world.
There's only one way to salvation from bondage to evil: faith in the redeeming work of Jesus Christ. To those who come to Him through the cross, He offers wisdom and knowledge that is far greater than all the counterfeit messages of the master deceiver. For "'eye has not seen, nor ear heard, nor have entered into the heart of man, the things which God has prepared for those who love Him.' But God has revealed them to us through His Spirit." 1 Corinthians 2:7-10
By His Spirit, we receive wisdom to discern the subtle lies that distort His truth. And by His Spirit, we have the resources needed to "test all things; hold fast what is good [and] abstain from every form of evil." For He is more than willing to enable us.
"Now may the God of peace Himself sanctify you completely; and may your whole spirit, soul, and body be preserved blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. He who calls you is faithful, who also will do it." 1 Thessalonians 5:21-24
|"TRUTH" according to -|
|The Bible||The Matrix||Gnosticism|
|Gospel||God's created people rebelled against their Maker and chose to follow their own ways. To reconcile us to Himself, God Himself took the form of man and gave His life. Thus Jesus Christ paid the penalty for our sin, freed us from bondage to our sinful nature, and provided for all our needs, now and forever.||Living in a dream world, few humans realize that they are slaves to evil machines. But some awaken to the hope that Neo, 'the One,' will save them.||"The created universe and human experience were characterized by a radical disjunction between the spiritual, which was real, and the physical, which was illusory. ... [S]parks of deity became entrapped in the physical world. These could be freed only by saving knowledge that was revealed to a spiritual elite by a transcendent messenger from the spirit world, variously identified as Seth (one of the sons of Adam), Jesus, or some other figure...."8|
The confident certainty that God will accomplish all He has promised.
(Romans 5:5; Romans 8:24-25; Romans 8:25; Hebrews 6:18-19, 10:23)
To save the human race from the evil machines.
Based in part on the uncertain prophesy of an Oracle believed to tap into a higher source of wisdom.
Based on esoteric revelations, complex philosophy and personal feelings
Limited by fatalism, the belief that most people have no control over what happens to them. Fate (forces beyond their control) determines what happens. But the enlightened seek salvation through gnosis ( esoteric knowledge).
...in the sovereign, all-powerful, all-knowing God of the universe...
In Jesus Christ as our Savior, Redeemer, Shepherd and Lord, whose death and resurrection has provided for all our needs, now and forever. (Jesus)
...in Neo as savior, Morpheus as spiritual leader and father.
References to prayer, prophecy, Trinity, Zion, etc. suggests an undefined spiritual hierarchy.
...in "an ever-unborn Supreme 'God' from which flowed the transcendental Godhead. ... The chief of the lowest orders was Jehovah....
"When his incarnated 'Son' was sent to Earth to free people, He was killed. However, the image of the Son (Jesus) was transferred to another and thereby Jesus (incarnate) was not killed!"6
The Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit: One Holy Triune God with different functions.
The Holy Spirit enables us to walk in His ways.
"If Morpheus can be the father/God image, and Neo the dual-nature/Son image, then Trinity is the Spirit."1
A counterfeit trinity made up of "God", "The Eternal Feminine Principle" (Sophia = wisdom) and Jesus, their Son.
Sophia is a "Universal Mother and/or Cosmic Concubine, the pure Spirit-daughter and consort of the Highest Lord."(See A Twist of Faith Chapter 2)
|Focus||God-centered||Man-centered: Humanistic||Humanistic. "Gnosis is a practical study, whose principal theme is man's knowledge of himself, his physical, psychological and spiritual possibilities...."9|
1. Originally referred only to the Western ridge of Jerusalem.
2. David made it Israel's capital city and Solomon built its first temple according to God's revealed plan.
3. Because of Israel's gross idolatry and disobedience, God allowed Babylon's ruler, Nebuchadnezzar, to destroy Jerusalem and exile His people.
4. The prophesied Millennial City.
5. Heavenly Jerusalem
The cavernous underground home and hiding place of the awakened ones - the human rebels.
The Gnostic gospel, First Apocalypse of James, warns that Jerusalem (Zion) is a dwelling place of a great number of 'archons' or evil angels. Jerusalem is stigmatized as the city which 'gives the cup of bitterness to the sons of light.'"
Another Gnostic site, "Sophia - Zoe Gnosticism," brings this lie: "From Adam's union with this demoness... sprang Asmodeus and innumerable demons that still plague mankind. Many generations later, Lilith and Naamah came to Solomon's judgment seat, disguised as harlots of Jerusalem. Lilith typifies the Anath-worshipping Canaanite women, who were permitted pre-nuptial promiscuity."10
The Babylonian ruler who conquered ancient Judah, destroyed Jerusalem, demolished Solomon's temple, and brought the people into captivity in Babylon. His strange prophetic dreams were interpreted by Daniel. (Daniel 4:1-37)
This friendly hovercraft is like an ark of refuge to the human rebels, those who have knowledge concerning the evil Matrix
"Gnosticism...first emerged in the Babylonian
"The gnosis religion of Babylon was called Mystery, because it contained 'secret
knowledge' disclosed only through: "blood-oaths, oaths.. sexual rituals, and
meanings of coded riddles." This secret knowledge is alleged to be
identical to that 'gnosis-knowledge' taught to Eve by the serpent... the 'good-god.'...Eve
is the whore goddess and high-priestess."
"The gnosis religion of Babylon was called Mystery, because it contained 'secret knowledge' disclosed only through: "blood-oaths, oaths.. sexual rituals, and meanings of coded riddles." This secret knowledge is alleged to be identical to that 'gnosis-knowledge' taught to Eve by the serpent... the 'good-god.'...Eve is the whore goddess and high-priestess."11
Note: Not his real name. For his safety, we are calling him Peter. If you have any questions, you can write to him at this email address: email@example.com
1. David Bruce, "The Matrix" (1999) at http://www.hollywoodjesus.com/matrix.htm (We don't recommend this website)
2. Jake Horsley, "Gnosticism Reborn: The Matrix as Shamanic Journey." (We don't recommend this website)
3. Duncan Campbell, "Matrix films blamed for series of murders by obsessed fans," The Guardian, May 19, 2003.
4. Chris Priebe, Subject: Applications to the Christian Life and clarification of New Age issues," posted: 23 Jul 2000. A response to David Bruce. See #1.
5. Andre Nataf, Dictionary of the Occult (Ware, UK: Wordsworth Editions Ltd., 1988); page 36-37.
6. Renee Ramsey, "The Uncomplicated Gnostic" at http://www.thelema.net/ramsey/Gnosticism.html#1
7.This doesn't mean the avoidance of genuine, God-given pleasure and joy. But it does mean freedom from bondage to an obsessive pursuit of the world's fleeting and addictive pleasures. See Rom 6:6-14
9."About Gnosis" at http://www.gnosticeditions.com.au/about_gnosis_frame.html
10. "Sophia: Zoe Gnosticism - Female Instructing Principle" at www.piney.com/Dochypostas.html
11. Serpent Gnosticism, Apostasy Of All Ages at http://jesus-messiah.com/w-preach/wp-nt-17.html
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